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Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy

FTIR is able to provide accuracy, reproducibility, and also a favorable signal-to-noise ratio.

By using FTIR spectroscopy, it becomes possible to detect small absorbance changes on the order

of 103, which helps to perform difference spectroscopy, where one could distinguish the small

absorption bands of functionally active residues from the large background absorption of the

entire protein [122128]. FTIR spectroscopy is frequently used to find out whether biomolecules

are involved in the synthesis of nanoparticles, which is more pronounced in academic and industrial research [10,68,129,130]. Furthermore, FTIR has also been extended to the study of nano-scaled materials, such as confirmation of functional molecules covalently grafted onto silver, carbon nanotubes, graphene and gold nanoparticles, or interactions occurring between enzyme and substrate during the catalytic process [68,131,132]. Furthermore, it is a non-invasive technique. Finally, the advantages of FTIR spectrometers over dispersive ones are rapid data collection, strong signal, large signal-to-noise ratio, and less sample heat-up [133]. Recently, further advancement has been made in an FTIR method called attenuated total reflection (ATR)-FTIR spectroscopy [134136]. Using ATR-FTIR, we can determine the chemical properties on the polymer surface, and sample preparation is easy compared to conventional FTIR [10,137141]. Therefore, FTIR is a suitable, valuable, non-invasive, cost effective, and simple technique to identify the role of biological molecules in the reduction of silver nitrate to silver.

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