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Inorganic Compound Naming Guidelines

Inorganic compounds, compounds has nothing to do with the body (a few related to the body of the compound and inorganic compound, such as water), and organic compounds, usually refers to do not contain carbon compounds, including carbon oxide, carbonate, carbonate, cyanide, etc., hereinafter referred to as inorganic substances.

The name of the inorganic compound should be concise and precise to indicate the composition and structure of the named matter. This requires the use of the name of the element, root, or basis to express the various components of the substance; Use the "chemical preposition" (the function of connecting nouns) to express the connection of each component of the substance.

Naming guidelines

(1) chemical preposition: the system name of the compound is affix by its basic components. A chemical preposition is an infix of a compound whose name is formed by the name of a compound. List the following.

This is a simple combination. KCl, such as chlorine atom (Cl) and K (K), is called potassium chloride. NaOH, which is hydroxide (OH-) and sodium (Na), is called sodium hydroxide.

A combination of molecules and molecules or molecules with ions. For example, CaCl 2 ·H 2 O is called calcium chloride, and H three O is called hydronium.

(3) generation of a. To replace the hydrogen atoms in the parent compound, such as NH 2 Cl, which is called chloromide; NHCl 2 is called dichlorinated ammonia;

ClCH2COOH is called chloroacetic acid. B. Sulfur (or selenium, tellurium) replaced oxygen, such as H2S2O3 sulfuric acid; HSeCN is called selenium diocyanate.

It is said that two or more of the same molecules are converging, such as (HF) 2, hydrofluoric acid, (HOCN) 3, 3 polycyanic acid, (KPO 3) 6.

(2) base and root: the base and root are the atomic groups that exist in the compound, if the covalent bond is called with other components

The bonding of the valence bond to the other components is called the root. Base and root are generally named after their parent compound, which is called a base or a root. The base and root can also be named after the element names that are included, and the full element names are placed in front, and the unfilled ones are left behind.

Carbon dioxide

Colorless odorless gas, acid, soluble in water (volume ratio 1:1), partially carbonic acid. Gaseous carbon dioxide is used to make alkali industry and sugar industry, and it is used for the hardening of steel castings and the manufacture of lead-white. It can be burned by carbon in excess air or made of marble, limestone, dolomite calcination or acid, as a by-product of industries such as lime and fermentation. Carbon dioxide generally does not burn and does not support combustion. At normal temperature, the density is slightly larger than the air, and when heated, it will concentrate on the top, often used as an extinguishing agent. Carbon dioxide is an indispensable raw material for photosynthesis of green plants. Carbon dioxide is commonly used as fertilizer in greenhouse. Solid carbon dioxide, commonly known as dry ice, can absorb a lot of heat when it is sublimated, so it is used as a refrigerant, such as artificial rainfall, and is used to create smoke in the dance.

Sulfuric acid

Pure sulfuric acid is a kind of colorless and odorless liquid, which releases a lot of heat when dissolved. It is a strong acid which is not volatile in high boiling point. It is easy to dissolve in water and can be mixed with water in any ratio. The chemical properties are hydroscopicity, hydroscopicity, strong oxidation, volatile, acidity and stability.

Water is the most abundant compound in living cells. Water content is different in different types of organisms; Different tissues and organs have different levels of water.

The presence of water in the cell has two kinds of free water and water. The combination of water and other substances is an important component of cellular structure, accounting for about 4.5%. Free water exists in a free form, a good solvent for cells, and can be directly involved in biochemical reactions, as well as transport of nutrients and waste. In short, all life activities of all kinds of organisms cannot be separated from water.

Most inorganic salt ions in the cell state exists, its contents, although very few, but there are many important functions: some of the inorganic salt is an important component of some complex compounds in the cell, such as Fe is the main component of hemoglobin, Mg is chlorophyll composition; Many inorganic salt ions are important to maintain the life activities of cells and organisms, such as low levels of calcium ions in the blood. Inorganic salt is also important for maintaining the ph balance of cells


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